“ANALYSIS OF FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR IN USING SOFT LENSES”

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

In this era of globalization of competition in the business world so rapidly, many of the manufacturers have to adjust the era of globalization and competition with sedamg growing trend, especially in the era before the free market. No doubt a growing trend proficiency level was strongly associated with consumer behavior in the consumption behavior

Consumer behavior is an something which sacrificed by consumers good the form of money, time nor manpower to get a goods or services of the desired. Consumer behavior is also constitute something who underlie consumers determine purchasing decisions

Many factors determine the consumer to decide on the purchase of a product associated with the development trend of them is a necessity, lifestyle, environmental influences, and poses psychological

One attempt to follow the trend in recent years is a rapidly growing business or contact lenses commonly referred to as “contact lens”. Quite often businesses also market their business through social networks where media is the result of technological advances that followed the trends are much in demand and dominated by teenagers, where the teen is a huge potential market

For those who have complaints on vision, contact lens is a tool that can help these complaints, so many consumers who use them. But now the function of the contact lens as a tool not only for vision but can serve as accessories to beautify the eyes because of its color assortment and can be changed at any time as Desire, so the market share is not only reserved for those who have complaints on eyes but also can be used to beautify themselves, so many people encountered who use contact lenses though her ​​eyes were troubled or minus.

Based on the above researchers interested in conducting research and would like to analyze consumer behavior in the form of a scientific paper titled “Analysis Of Factors Affecting Consumer Behaviour In Using Soft Lenses”

1.2 Formulation of the problem

1. What are the factors that affect consumers in the use of Soft lenses?

2. On the factors-factors, which is the most dominant factor to the decision to use Soft lenses?

1.3 Limitations

In this case the authors limit the issues concerning the behavior of consumers who use or have ever used contact lenses with sex women aged between 18-25 years, the data was taken on April 7, 2011 to April 28, 2011 by using a questionnaire and a test using a Likert scale, validity and reliability, multiple linear regression, multiple correlation (R), determination test, F test and t test. Factors examined in this study were social factors, personal factors, psychological factors and factors of marketing mix

1.4 Purpose of Research

1. Academic Benefits

The result is expected to be useful for the development of marketing management, particularly on matters relating to the factors that influence consumer behavior in using a product, other than that this study is also expected to provide inspiration for writers who want to do similar research

2. Practical Benefits

For contact lens manufacturer, this research in decision makers to manufacture products tailored to customer needs.

1.6 Analysis Tools

Analysis tools used in this study is :

1.Likert scale

2.Uji Reliability and Validity

3.Analisis Regression

4.Analisis Coefficient of Determination (R ²)

5.Analisis Multiple Correlation Coefficient (R)

6. Test “t”

7. Test “f”

1.7 Hypothesis

The hypothesis in this article is:

Ho     : The variables of social, personal, psychological and marketing mix together no effect on       the dependent variable is the decision to use soft lenses.

Ha     : The variables of social, personal, psychological and marketing mix together   influential tehadap dependent variable is the decision to use soft lenses.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II
THEORY

2.1 Theory

2.1.1 Definition of Consumer Behavior

Consumer behavior according to Nugroho J. Setiadi (2003; 3-8) is directly involved in the action to get, consume and spend the products or services including the decision processes that precede and following on this action.

            Leon Schiffman and Leslie Lazar Karuk (2007: 6) says that the study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make decisions to utilize their available resources (time, money, effort) in order to purchase items related to consumption. This includes what they buy, why they buy, when they buy, where they buy, how often they membel, and how often they use it.

2.1.2 Buying Decision Process

Consumer behavior is critical in the buying decision process. In the purchase decision-making process there are five, which aims to determine how consumer behavior in choosing or buying a product. Purchase decision process for manufacturers can also be used as a reference to be able to design effective marketing programs for their target market.

The five stages are as follows:

 
   

 

 

 

 

Figure 2.2.

Buying decision process model

Source: Kotler and Armstrong (2007:235)

 

2.1.2 Definition of soft lenses

According to Anderson, 2007, contact lenses are glass or plastic cover of the curve and used directly on the eyeball or cornea to correct refractive eye kesalahn, by the American Optometric Association.

2.2 A type of research study

This study used a similar research study as a reference material of writing including:

2.2.1 Analysis of Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior In Using Braces

Scientific writing, entitled: Analysis of Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior In Using Braces written by Nike Miharja. Object of the research is that consumers who use braces with a sample of 50 respondents. Variables used in this study are Likert scale test, test reabiltas and validity, test of determination, multiple linear regression, hypothesis testing and hypothesis F t. The independent variable in this is empirically social factors, personal, psychological, and marketing mix. The dependent variable in this study is the decision to use braces. The hypotheses used are:

Ho: There is no influence of social variables, personal, psychological, and marketing mix together on the dependent variable, ie making use of braces.

Ha: There is the influence of social variables, personal, psychological, and marketing mix together on the dependent variable, ie making use of braces.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER III
RESULT

3.1 Result

3.1.1 Data and Research Object Profiles

Respondents in this study is the general public who use contact lenses. Respondent amounted to 50 people that will be described in the following table:

Table 3.1

Age of Respondents

Age of Respondent

Number of Respondents

Persentase

18-19

8

16%

20-21

37

74%

22-23

4

8%

24

1

2%

Sum

50

100%

 

From the table above, note that the respondents in this study the majority of respondents were aged 20-21 years, as many as 38 people or 76%, followed by respondents over the age of 18-19 years as many as 8 people or 16%, of respondents who between the ages of 22-23, as many as 4 or 8%, and respondents aged 24 years as much as 1 or 2%.

3.1.2 Analysis of Likert Scale

Likert scale is an attitude measurement technique most widely used in marketing research. Studies that measured variables described in the indicator variables that may serve as a starting point for the preparation of item – item instrument

 

 

 

 

                                                                   Tabel 3.2

Likert Scale Overall Results

Estimation ( Bobot )

SS

5

S

4

CS

3

TS

2

STS

1

Jumlah

Frekuensi

127

341

193

281

39

981

Persentase

12.94%

34.76%

19.67%

28.64%

3.98%

100%

Value

635

1364

579

562

39

3179

 

 

 

 

 

 

                     Sources: Questionnaire Results

Based on the obtained results of the questionnaire results by 12.94% said strongly agree overall statement on the decision of consumer behavior using contact lenses, 34.76% agree, 19.67% quite agree, 28.64% disagreed, 3.98% strongly disagree

3.1.3 Validity and Reliability Test Results

Validity of the test results by using SPSS version 19.0 can be seen in the following table:

Table 3.3

Validity of Test Results

Item-Total Statistics

 

Scale Mean if Item Deleted

Scale Variance if Item Deleted

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Cronbach’s Alpha if Item Deleted

S1

51,80

83,061

,332

,819

S2

51,00

91,265

,373

,834

S3

51,10

85,112

,322

,819

S4

51,82

79,865

,487

,810

I1

52,68

85,732

,483

,827

I2

51,52

84,581

,382

,821

I3

51,86

82,776

,397

,815

I4

52,30

81,806

,447

,813

P1

52,46

80,498

,466

,811

P2

52,72

78,206

,691

,801

P3

51,82

82,600

,444

,813

P4

52,60

89,184

,306

,839

M1

52,44

80,741

,536

,808

M2

51,94

83,445

,404

,815

M3

52,64

81,582

,479

,811

M4

52,60

81,796

,516

,810

KP1

51,74

82,074

,383

,816

KP2

52,46

77,233

,674

,800

KP3

52,68

81,569

,516

,810

KP4

52,54

81,111

,521

,809

                     Sources: the results if the data using SPSS 19.0

                     Statement 1 has a value of Corrected Item Total Correlation of 0.332, greater than the value of r table, namely 0279, the first statement is declared invalid. Similarly, other statements have Corrected Item Total Correlation values ​​greater than r table value, then the entire statement is declared invalid. Once the data is valid, then the reliability test is then performed with the following results:

Table 3.4

Reliability Test Results

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach’s Alpha

N of Items

,823

20

Sources: the results if the data using SPSS 19.0

Reliability test results can be seen in the output Reliability Statistics. Obtained Cronbach’s Alpha value of 0.823. Because the Cronbach’s Alpha value of more than 0.6, it can be concluded that the measuring instrument in this study reliably.

 

 

3.1.4 Linear Regression Analysis

Regression testing is intended to determine the linear relationship between two or more independent variables (social, personal, psychological, and marketing mix) with the dependent variable (purchase decisions). In this study, multiple linear regression using SPSS 19.0 shows the calculation as follows :

Table 3.5

Influence Analysis varaibel X Against variable Y

 

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-,775

,477

 

-1,624

,111

social

,428

,121

,380

3,532

,001

personal

,126

,119

,121

1,057

,296

psychological

,344

,122

,329

2,821

,007

marketing

,249

,124

,239

2,007

,051

          Sources: the results if the data using SPSS 19.0

Based on the calculation of multiple regression between social variables, individuals, psychologists, and marketing mix to use of contact lenses in Table 4:27, the obtained results of the regression equation as follows:

Y= a + bX1 + bX2 + bX3 + bX4

Y = -0,775 + 0,428 X1 + 0,126 X2 + 0,344 X3 + 0,249 X4

Results of multiple regression equation above gives the sense as follows:

Constant is negative, that is equal to -0.775. This suggests that the use of contact lenses rely on social variables, individual, psychological, and marketing mix.

 

 

3.1.5  Analysis of Multiple Correlation Coefficient (R)

Table 3.6

Analysis of Effect of X1, X2, X3, X4 Against Y

Model Summaryb

Model

R

R Square

Adjusted R Square

Std. Error of the Estimate

1

,752a

,566

,527

,47888

Sources: the results if the data using SPSS 19.0

 

 

 

 

From the results of the calculations in Table 4:28, note that the influence (correlation) of social, individual, psychological, and marketing mix to use of contact lenses is positive, ie 0.752. The value is between 0.60 to 0.799, which indicates a strong influence among these variables.

3.1.6 Test Coefficient of Determination (R ²)

The calculation in the table 4:27 obtained R ² (R Square) of 0.566. But according to Santoso, 2000 states that studies that use more than two independent variables, the adjusted R Square value is used as the coefficient of determination. This means 0.527 or 52.7% of contact lens use is affected by social variables, individual, psychological and marketing mix. While the rest, amounting to 47.3% explained by other variables not examined in this study

3.1.7 ANOVA (F test)

Table 4:29

Analysis of X1, X2, X3, X4 Against Y In Simultaneous

ANOVAb

Model

Sum of Squares

Df

Mean Square

F

Sig.

1

Regression

13,462

4

3,365

14,675

,000a

Residual

10,320

45

,229

 

 

Total

23,781

49

 

 

 

Sources: the results if the data using SPSS 19.0

From the results of the calculation are listed in Table 4:29, obtained F value of 14.675 with a significant level of 0.000 <0.5. This suggests that H1 is accepted and H0 is rejected, which also means that the social variables, individual, psychological, and marketing mix significantly influence the use of contact lenses in the community.

3.1.8  T Test

Table 4:30

Analysis of Effect of X1, X2, X3, X4 Against Y

 

Model

Unstandardized Coefficients

Standardized Coefficients

t

Sig.

B

Std. Error

Beta

1

(Constant)

-,775

,477

 

-1,624

,111

sosial

,428

,121

,380

3,532

,001

pribadi

,126

,119

,121

1,057

,296

psikologis

,344

,122

,329

2,821

,007

marketing

,249

,124

,239

2,007

,051

Sources: the results if the data using SPSS 19.0

 

 

Results of research into the effect of social variables, individual, psychological and marketing mix to use of contact lenses in the community, show that:

Social variables, individual, psychological, and marketing mix jointly influence decisions of contact lens use. Of the four independent variables, individual variables and marketing mix has no significant influence on the use of contact lenses for the Sig> 0.005, while the social and psychological variables have a significant effect.

For the most dominant factor affecting the use of contact lenses is a social factor, because the most significant coined the lower level is 0,001.

 

 

 

CHAPTER IV

CONCLUSION

4.1 Conclusion

Based on the results of testing the hypotheses proposed in this study, it can be concluded as follows:

1. Social factors, personal, psychological and marketing mix jointly influence consumer decisions in the use of contact lenses

2. Social factor is a factor that has the most dominant influence on the use of contact lenses because the decision has a significant level of 0.001 or <0.05.

4.2 Suggestions

Based on the above conclusions, the authors give some suggestions as follows:

1. Contact lens manufacturers should be able to further improve the quality of their products and do better marketing, both in terms of price, promotion, distribution, and continues to innovate in order to contact lenses is better known by the public.

2. Because social factors are the most dominant factors that manufacturers should be able to keep the product life cycle can last a long time with continued product innovations on contact lenses to keep abreast of emerging trends in the market.

 

 

 

 

 

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

 

Anna, Firyana. 2008 “Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior Toward Decisions Using Nokia    Mobile In Gunadarma University Students “, University Gunadarma, PI Management,

 

Bambang, Kustituanto, dkk, 1994, Statistika 1, Gunadarma, Jakarta.

Husein, Umar. 2005, Riset Pemasaran Dan Perilaku Konsumen, Gramedia Pustaka Utama,Jakarta

Nike, Miharja. 2011 “Analysis of Factors Affecting Consumer Behavior In Using Braces”, University Gunadarma, PI Management.

Nugroho J, Setiadi. 2003, Perilaku Konsumen, Prenada Media, Jakarta.

 

 

 

 

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